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Sociology 191: Senior Capstone (Whitt)

Higher Education in the U.S.

Citation: A (Very Brief Introduction) (Video Tutorial)

North Carolina State University (NCSU) Libraries, 1:54

Major Citation Styles - Offical & Credible Guidance

Official Style Manuals

There are many different types of academic and professional writing styles. The four guidebooks below represent some of the major ones. Use these guides to learn how professional researchers and writers prepare their manuscripts for publication or sharing.

Major Style Guides by Fields that Use Them -- Click the image to be taken to the book or e-book in our library collection.

Humanities Social Sciences Humanities & Social Sciences Some Sciences

Cover image of the MLA Handbook, Ninth Edition

MLA Handbook

Cover image of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual, 7th edition

APA Publication Manual

Cover image of The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition

Chicago Manual of Style (e-book)

Cover image of the CSE Manual, Scientific Style and Format, 8th edition

CSE Manual

Online Style Resources

Although these resources are not official, they are still credible and very useful! If one of these websites doesn't answer your question, check out the official style guide or contact a librarian for help!

Guides from UC Merced Library 

Citation Styles & Disciplines

Each discipline has a preferred citation style.  Various websites point to the desired citation style for each discipline.

ASA Formatting Guides & Examples

ASA Examples

Journal Article from a Commercial Database

Sweeten, Gary, Shawn D. Bushway, and Raymond Paternoster. 2009. “Does Dropping Out of School Mean Dropping Into Delinquency?” Criminology 47(1):47-91. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2009.00139.x.

Information Posted on a Web Site

Spalter-Roth, Roberta and William Erskine. 2007. “Race and Ethnicity in the Sociology Pipeline.” Washington, DC: American Sociological Association. Retrieved January 9, 2008 (

Web-Based Journal Article

Smith, Herman W. and Takako Nomi. 2000. "Is Amae the Key to Understanding Japanese Culture?" Electronic Journal of Sociology 5:1. Retrieved May 5, 2000 (

Web Version of Newspaper

Blank, Rebecca M. 2008. “How We Measure Poverty.” Los Angeles Times, September 15. Retrieved January 7, 2009 (,0,7811609.story).

Note: Citations should be double-spaced and have a hanging indent.