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Spark 001 (Koehler)

Research Guide for Prison Literacy

Terms & Definitions


  • legal rights granted to creators

Fair Use

  • is the use of copyrighted materials for a limited or transformative purpose (Stanford Libraries)
  • places limits on copyright rights
  • if a use falls under "fair use", the copyright holder does not have to be contacted for permission or compensated for the item's use
  • fair use determinations consult these four factors and involve interpretation (Columbia University Libraries)
  • Wikipedia does not accept fair use justifications.


  • permits or authorizes use under certain conditions

Public Domain

Creative Commons Licenses

  • six standard licenses, based on four conditions, used by creators to grant copyright permission for their creative work
  • all six licenses require that creators be credited for their work
  • Wikipedia accepts a LIMITED number of CC licenses.

Creative Commons License Conditions

Four Creative Commons licenses provide a standardized way for creators to grant specific permission for their use of their work.

  • A combination of four elements or conditions result in six licenses.
  • Each Creative Commons (CC) license includes one to three of the following four elements.
  • Example from an image at OpenVerse.

Attribution (BY)

  • a work may be used if the author/licensor is credited
  • ALL six licenses require Attribution (BY)

Non-Commercial (NC)

  • a work may only be used for non-commercial purposes

No Derivative Works (ND)

  • a work may not be changed in anyway
  • NEVER featured with Share-Alike (SA) element

Share-Alike (SA)

  • a derivative work (any changed work) must receive the same license that was applied to the original work
  • only applies to derivative works
  • NEVER featured with the No Derivative Works (ND) element

Each license element has an associated graphic.

graphic - Creative Commons elements