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Native American & Indigenous Communities

Suggested resources and information for those researching topics related to Native American and Indigenous Cultures

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Citing: More Than Personal Communication

To better acknowledge the value and importance of oral histories of Indigenous scholars, Lorisia MacLeod (James Smith Cree Nation) in partnership with staff of the NorQuest Indigenous Student Centre crafted citation templates for unrecorded oral teachings to use in APA and MLA styles. See MacLeod's article "More Than Personal Communication: Templates for Citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers" which provides the templates for APA and MLA and an explanation of each the elements in the templates.

  • The templates recognize the richness of oral teaching and does not relegate them to personal communications which is the category often used in citation styles.
  • The templates provide a "more culturally appropriate manner" to reference oral Indigenous knowledge.

See "Referencing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers" at NorQuest College Library.