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Writing 10 (Ray, Fall 2023)

Scholarly vs. Non-Scholarly

graphic of scholarly and non-scholarly sources

from video "Scholarly vs non-scholarly sources - academic resources Research ready" (1:58) from Southern Cross University Library

Scholarly and Non-Scholarly Characteristics

Scholarly Non-Scholarly aka Popular
can include articles and books can include articles, books, and many other information sources from blogs to government publications
Scholarly articles are also referred to as peer-reviewed or refereed articles.  These are a sub-set of scholarly articles. sources that are non-scholarly can still be useful and credible
Scholarly books are often produced by university presses (e.g. California University Press) or other publishers focused on academic literature produced by a variety of individuals and organizations from reputable organizations to self-publishers
include citations, usually extensive (lots!) citations may or may not be included
written by and for faculty, researchers or scholars (research focused) written for a variety of audiences

What's "empirical?"

The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines "empirical" as:

1. originating in or based on observation or experience empirical data;
2 . relying on experience or observation alone often without due regard for system and theory an empirical basis for the theory; or
3. capable of being verified or disproved by observation or experiment empirical laws.

An empirical study is one in which an experiment, survey, or study is conducted and the results of that experiment, survey, or study are reported. An empirical study journal article is one that details the study by describing it in detail: what was studied, why it was studied, how it was studied (survey, experiment, et c.), the results of the study, and a discussion of those results. The reporting of empirical studies in scholarly journals almost always follows the same structure: IMRAD.