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Spark 1 (Torres)

Flesh & Bone: Forensic Science

APA Style

  • a common citation style
  • APA stands for American Psychological Association
  • often used in social and behavioral sciences
  • includes parameters about the language, format of the whole paper
  • in-text citations and References page

Publication Manual

The Basics of APA Style

In-Text Practices

Key Characteristics

  • Author's last name (not needed if noted in text)
  • Date of publication
  • Include page number if a direct quote; though page number is encouraged even if paraphrased
  • page number NOT needed if referring to the book as a whole
  • items separated by commas
  • p. used for page; pp. used for multiple pages
  • et al. for three or more authors


Reference List Practices

Key Characteristics

  • called References (centered at top)
  • hanging indents after first line for each entry
  • organized alphabetically by last name of first author
  • first names are given initials
  • italicize book and journal titles
  • book & article titles, first word capitalized & first word after semi-colon (for subtitle)
  • journal titles, all major words are capitalized
  • edition information follows a book title; example (2nd ed.)


Book Format

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (ed.). Publisher Name. DOI (if available)


Article Format (add hanging indent)

AuthorLastname, A. A., AuthorLastname, B. B., & AuthorLastname, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.


Online News Format

AuthorLastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Publication. URL



APA 7th edition no longer requires the use of “Retrieved from” before URLs or DOIs.
APA 7th edition now requires that up to 20 author names are listed in the citation -- meaning 19 with ellipsis followed by a 20th name.  (Previously this was six before the ellipsis.)


See APA in Action!

Images & Figures

Resources with Examples


Using Visual Works in Class Assignment & Presentations (James Cook University)

  • simplified guidance on citing figures and tables in APA 7th edition

Citing Images & Tables in APA Style (Simon Fraser University)

  • detailed guidance on citing figures and tables in APA 7th edition
In-Text Example


Figure 1.

Image of fingerprint.


Note. Sourced from ar130405 at Pixabay (n.d).

Overall Guidance



  • Introduce the image, table, etc. with the word Figure in bold typeface followed by a number and period. Make this left aligned.
  • The number assigned to the Figure will follow the sequence in your own work NOT the number found in your original source.

Figure Description

  • On a new line -- below the Figure # -- provide a description of the figure, table, image etc. in italics typeface.


  • Insert the figure, table, image etc.


  • Below the figure, table, image, provide a Note. The Note area is where you provide copyright attribution or acknowledgement of where the image came from.
  • Start with the word Note followed by a period. This will be italicized. Continue with an acknowledgement in regular typeface.

Cite in Reference List

  • Remember: The source from which you retrieved the image, table, figure etc. must appear in your Reference list.