|Identify your key concepts and related terms.||
Example: I am interested in what ecosystem services pollinators provide.
|Select appropriate search tools and/or sites.||
Databases > Subject > e.g. Natural Science > General Databases
|Construct a search. Start with keyword searching. Could be simple or using AND/Or (Boolean Operators). Join similar terms with OR. Join dissimilar terms with AND||
"ecosystem services" AND (pollinators OR pollination)
|Skim citation and abstract information to determine the usefulness of the source. Viewing an introduction or conclusion can be helpful too.||Sometimes a snippet in available on the results lists. You may have to click on the article titles, or click on a preview to see the abstract.|
|Revise search as needed. Too many or too few results? Is this a suitable search tool? Am I retrieving relevant results?||"ecosystem services" AND (pollinators OR pollination) AND (honeybees OR "honey bees")|
|Consider searching for certain terms in specific fields. e.g. Title field||
honeybees OR "honey bees" (Title) AND "habitat diversity" (All Fields)
|Use options to Limit or Refine e.g. by Date or Document type (original research articles, review articles ...)||e.g. Science Direct > Advanced Search > Journals tab > has a Limit by Document Type section|
|Find a highly relevant article and look for "Related Articles".||e.g. on full record in Science Direct, see "Related Articles" box at right|
|View bibliographies for references to other resources or organizations. Search for the known item or known organization.||e.g. I found a references in an article to this citation: Kremen, C., N. M. Williams, R. L. Bugg, J. P. Fay, and R. W. Thorp. 2004. The area requirements of an ecosystem service: Crop pollination by native bee communities in California. Ecology Letters 7:1109–1119.|
|Search for variations of a word using a truncation symbol (*) at the end of the terms.||e.g. pollinat* will search for pollinator, pollinators, pollination etc.|
|Look for a phrase, using quotation marks " ".||e.g. "ecosystem services" / "habitat diversity"|
honey bee / honeybee / western honey bee = "apis mellifera" / European honey bee
pollinators / "pollinator diversity" /
habitat / "habitat needs" / "habitat diversity" / "habitat enhancement" / "habitat modification"
native / wild / feral
managed / domesticated
Already have a citation for a book or article? Try the following:
Search in Google Scholar, especially for article titles.
If a journal article, check to see if we have the journal for that year. Use e-Journals tab in QuickSearch.
Sample Citation: Dramstad, W., and G. Fry. 1995. Foraging activity of bumblebees (Bombus) in relation to flower resources on arable land. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 53:123–135.
Sample Citation: O’Toole, C., and A. Raw. 1999. Bees of the World. 192 pp. London: Blandford.
Sample Citation: Kremen, C., N. M. Williams, R. L. Bugg, J. P. Fay, and R. W. Thorp. 2004. The area requirements of an ecosystem service: Crop pollination by native bee communities in California. Ecology Letters 7:1109–1119.
How would we go about finding these?
Try searching a specific domain in Google with Search terms site:.gov (or .edu)