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Style by Discipline
APA style is usually used in Social Sciences and Psychology and is an author-date system. APA stands for the American Psychological Association.
APA style features in-text parenthetical citations, with a focus on author/date, and a corresponding Reference page.
- elements include author's last name, year of publication and page number(s)
- elements in are separated by commas - Example: (Arnold, 2015, p. 378)
- a direct quote requires a page number preceded by p. - Example: ... as the "individuals pronounced vocally and fearlessly" (Smith, 2016, p. 201)
- page numbers are still encouraged for summary and paraphrase though not necessary - Example: (Goriava & Woodland, 2017)
- author's name may be excluded if found in the introductory text - Example: Patel (2013) found that .... " " (p. 67)
- p. used for page; pp. used for multiple pages - Example: (Ramble, 2014, pp. 45-49)
- works by two authors use the ampersand in the parentheses - Example: (Goriava & Woodland, 2017)
In-Text Citations: The Basics (OWL Purdue)
In-Text Citations: Author/Authors (OWL Purdue)
When and How to Include Page Numbers in APA Style Citations (APA Blog)
Citing References in Text (Basics of APA Style Tutorial)
Reference List ...
- has the title of References, centered at top
- includes hanging indents after the first line for each entry
- is organized alphabetically by the last name of the first author
- gives initials to first names of authors
- italicizes book and journal titles
- capitalizes the first word and the first word after a semi-colon of a journal article title
- capitalizes all major words in journal titles
- common elements & order of citation elements:
Reference List: Basic Rules (OWL Purdue)
Reference List: Author/Authors (OWL Purdue)
Pre-Formatted Word Document in APA
This is a pre-formatted Word document in APA style. Your course instructor may have additional instructions for how the paper should be formatted.
APA Formatting Guides & Examples
Note: hanging indents not included
Cite Functionality - PsycInfo
- Select the item(s) you want.
- Click Cite.
- Select the Citation Style from the drop down menu.
- Click Change.
- Copy the citation(s) or email to yourself etc.
RefWorks Fast Facts
RefWorks is subscription tool that the library pays for. All UC Merced students, faculty and staff can create an account. RefWorks helps you:
- Export citations from library databases and websites
- Generate in-text citations
- Create bibliographies
- Share references with others
- Communicate with software like Microsoft Word
Sign-up or login to RefWorks today.
A new version of RefWorks is available. More information about choosing legacy RefWorks or new RefWorks is available at "RefWorks - New & Improved".