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PH 208 B (Yen): APA

Professional Skills

APA Template

Key Characteristics

Big Picture

APA style features in-text parenthetical citations, with a focus on author/date, and a corresponding Reference page.

In-Text Citations

  • elements include author's last name, year of publication and page number(s)
  • elements in are separated by commas - Example:  (Arnold, 2015, p. 378)
  • a direct quote requires a page number preceded by p. - Example: ... as the "individuals pronounced vocally and fearlessly" (Smith, 2016, p. 201)
  • page numbers are still encouraged for summary and paraphrase though not necessary - Example: (Goriava & Woodland, 2017)
  • author's name may be excluded if found in the introductory text - Example: Patel (2013) found that .... " " (p. 67)
  • p. used for page; pp. used for multiple pages - Example: (Ramble, 2014, pp. 45-49)
  • works by two authors use the ampersand in the parentheses - Example: (Goriava & Woodland, 2017)

In-Text Citations: The Basics (OWL Purdue)
In-Text Citations: Author/Authors (OWL Purdue)
When and How to Include Page Numbers in APA Style Citations (APA Blog)
Citing References in Text (Basics of APA Style Tutorial)

Reference List ...

  • has the title of References, centered at top
  • includes hanging indents after the first line for each entry
  • is organized alphabetically by the last name of the first author
  • gives initials to first names of authors
  • italicizes book and journal titles
  • capitalizes the first word and the first word after a semi-colon of a journal article title
  • capitalizes all major words in journal titles
  • common elements & order of citation elements:

Reference List: Basic Rules (OWL Purdue)
Reference List: Author/Authors (OWL Purdue)

Examples

The headings are hyperlinked, which provide more information / context re: these examples, as well as additional examples. Not every single source has the same kind of information available, so, depending on the specific source you are citing, you will more than likely need to investigate the range of examples to select the pattern that bests fits your source.

Data Sets

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental
    Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. (2013). Treatment
    episode data set -- discharges (TEDS-D) -- concatenated, 2006 to 2009
[Data
    set]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR30122.v2

Research Article

Simon, S. L., Field, J., Miller, L. E., DiFrancesco, M., & Beebe, D. W. (2015). Sweet
     /dessert foods are more appealing to adolescents after sleep restriction. PLoS
    ONE
, 10, 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115434

Instruments

Purring, A. (2012). Charisma and Tenacity Survey [Measurement instrument].
     Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/tests/measures/instruments/surveys
     /charisma.html