Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Style by Discipline
APA style is usually used in Social Sciences and Psychology and is an author-date system. APA stands for the American Psychological Association.
APA style features in-text parenthetical citations, with a focus on author/date, and a corresponding Reference page.
- elements include author's last name, year of publication and page number(s)
- elements in are separated by commas - Example: (Arnold, 2015, p. 378)
- a direct quote requires a page number preceded by p. - Example: ... as the "individuals pronounced vocally and fearlessly" (Smith, 2016, p. 201)
- page numbers are still encouraged for summary and paraphrase though not necessary - Example: (Goriava & Woodland, 2017)
- author's name may be excluded if found in the introductory text - Example: Patel (2013) found that .... " " (p. 67)
- p. used for page; pp. used for multiple pages - Example: (Ramble, 2014, pp. 45-49)
- works by two authors use the ampersand in the parentheses - Example: (Goriava & Woodland, 2017)
In-Text Citations: The Basics (OWL Purdue)
In-Text Citations: Author/Authors (OWL Purdue)
When and How to Include Page Numbers in APA Style Citations (APA Blog)
Citing References in Text (Basics of APA Style Tutorial)
Reference List ...
- has the title of References, centered at top
- includes hanging indents after the first line for each entry
- is organized alphabetically by the last name of the first author
- gives initials to first names of authors
- italicizes book and journal titles
- capitalizes the first word and the first word after a semi-colon of a journal article title
- capitalizes all major words in journal titles
- common elements & order of citation elements:
Reference List: Basic Rules (OWL Purdue)
Reference List: Author/Authors (OWL Purdue)
Citing Indigenous Knowledge
NorQuest Library developed a format for Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers that is not available in formal APA style.
APA Formatting Guides & Examples
Pre-Formatted Word Document in APA
This is a pre-formatted Word document in APA style. Your course instructor may have additional instructions for how the paper should be formatted.
Note: hanging indents not included