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Style by Discipline
APA style is usually used in Social Sciences and Psychology and is an author-date system. APA stands for the American Psychological Association.
APA style features
, with a focus on author/date, and a corresponding in-text parenthetical citations page. Reference
elements include author's last name, year of publication and page number(s)
elements in are separated by commas -
Example: (Arnold, 2015, p. 378) a direct quote requires a page number preceded by p. -
Example: ... as the "individuals pronounced vocally and fearlessly" (Smith, 2016, p. 201) page numbers are still encouraged for summary and paraphrase though not necessary -
Example: (Goriava & Woodland, 2017) author's name may be excluded if found in the introductory text -
Example: Patel (2013) found that .... " " (p. 67) p. used for page; pp. used for multiple pages -
Example: (Ramble, 2014, pp. 45-49) works by two authors use the ampersand in the parentheses -
Example: (Goriava & Woodland, 2017)
In-Text Citations: The Basics (OWL Purdue)
In-Text Citations: Author/Authors (OWL Purdue)
When and How to Include Page Numbers in APA Style Citations (APA Blog)
Citing References in Text (Basics of APA Style Tutorial)
Reference List ...
has the title of References, centered at top
includes hanging indents after the first line for each entry
is organized alphabetically by the last name of the first author
gives initials to first names of authors
italicizes book and journal titles
capitalizes the first word and the first word after a semi-colon of a journal article title
capitalizes all major words in journal titles
common elements & order of citation elements:
Reference List: Basic Rules (OWL Purdue)
Reference List: Author/Authors (OWL Purdue)
APA Formatting Guides & Examples
Pre-Formatted Word Document in APA
This is a pre-formatted Word document in APA style. Your course instructor may have additional instructions for how the paper should be formatted.
Formatting in APA
Format APA Style References Page - Quick Demo (3:13)
Provides helpful hints about formatting in APA style from ProfessorAllenNPCC.